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山西自考《英语(二)》复习资料--Text A 6

山西自考网 发布时间:2012年06月03日

第三部分
  Para.5
  
At the managerial level, decision making includes limiting alternatives as well as identifying them, and the range is from highly limited to practically unlimited.
  
15.At the managerial level, decision making includes limiting alternatives as well as identifying them, and the range is from highly limited to practically unlimited.
  在as well as 结构中,强调前者 limiting alternatives ,不强调后者

  译为:作决策包括限定选择和识别选择,或者译成:不仅包括识别选择还要包括限定选择(除了包括识别选择外还有限定选择)
  practically ad. 实际上,事实上(在口语中译为,几乎,简直)在本文中是几乎的意思。例如:几乎是不可能
practically impossible
  
Para.6
  
Decision makers must have some way of determining which of several alternatives is best - that is, which contributes the most to the achievement of organizational goals. An organizational goal is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach. Because individuals (and organizations) frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision. Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization. Called suboptimization, this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function but decreases the advantages to another unit or function. For example, the marketing manager may argue effectively for an increased advertising budget. In the larger scheme of things, however, increased funding for research to improve the products might be more beneficial to the organization.
  
16.An organizational goal is an end or a state of affairs the organization seeks to reach.
  一个省略thatwhich的定语从句,修饰a state of affairs "事物的状态,事态
"
  to seek to do sth. 追求,争取,寻求,设法(去做某事
)
  
17.Because individuals (and organizations) frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision.
  本句中,because 引导了原因状语从句;在主句中,who makes the decision 是作depend on 的介词宾语从句。

  18.Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization.
  两个that引导的都是定语从句,修饰
decisions
  less than 在此做状语,表示否定的含义, less than optimal "不太理想
"
  例如:This job is less than perfect. 这份工作不十分理想(完美)。

  19.this is a trade-off that increases the advantages to one unit or function but decreases the advantages to another unit or function.
  that引导定语从句,修饰trade-off "权衡
"
  increases decreases 是定语从句的并列谓语

  Para.7
  
These trade-offs occur because there are many objectives that organizations wish to attain simultaneously. Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary from person to person and from department to department. Different managers define the same problem in different terms.When presented with a common case, sales managers tend to see sales problems, production managers see production problems, and so on.
  
20.These trade-offs occur because there are many objectives that organizations wish to attain simultaneously.
  Because 引导的原因状语从句中,有一个that引导的定语从句,修饰
many objectives
  
21.Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary form person to person and from department to department.
  vary from … to … 表示各不相同的意思。

  例:The percentage varies from person to person. (税收的) 比例因人而异。
  22.When presented with a common case
  presented with 面对

  过去分词短语前面加上when作时间状语。
  为了表示明确的时间或条件,有时常在分词前面加上when, while, even if , even though , unless 等连词作时间、条件、让步等状语。 (详见语法要点)
  
Para.8
  
The ordering and importance of multiple objectives is also based, in part, on the values of the decision maker. Such values are personal; they are hard to understand, even by the individual, because they are so dynamic and complex. In many business situations different peoples values about acceptable degrees of risk and profitability cause disagreement about the correctness of decisions.
  
23.The ordering and importance of multiple objectives is also based, in part, on the values of the decision maker.
  be based on 基于,取决于

  in part 部分地,在某种程度上
  对于多项目标的排序和重要性, 部分基于决策者的价值观。
  24.different peoples values about acceptable degrees of risk and profitability cause disagreement about the correctness of decisions.
  两个about都是介词短语作定语,修饰前边的名词

  不同人关于风险和收益可接受程度的价值观,导致了对于决策正确性的不同意见。
  Para.9
  
People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon. But from a systems point of view, problems have multiple causes, and decisions have intended and unintended consequences. An organization is an ongoing entity, and a decision made today may have consequences far into the future. Thus the skilled manager looks toward the future consequences of current decisions.
  
25.People often assume that a decision is an isolated phenomenon.
  assume vt. 认为,假定,设想 that 引导宾语从句

  26.An organization is an ongoing entity, and a decision made today may have consequences far into the future.
  an ongoing entity "一个发展中的实体,一个运作中的单位
"
  made today 过去分词短语作定语,"今天做出的决策
"
  far into the future 形容词短语作定语,"对将来有深远的影响
"
  
27.Thus the skilled manager looks toward the future consequences of current decisions.
  the skilled manager "一个干练的管理者,一个有经验的管理者
"
  current a. 当前的,现时的 n. 流,水流,电流,气流

  一个干练的管理者可以从当今决策看到未来的结果。
  附:重点句

  1.The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists, goals or objectives are wrong, or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them. 三个表语从句并列 (第一段)
  2.Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance, but since uncertainty is always there, risk accompanies decisions. 主从复合句(第二段)
  3.For managers, every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like. (第三段)
  4.For example, managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion; (第四段)
  5.Because individuals (and organizations) frequently have different ideas about how to attain the goals, the best choice may depend on who makes the decision. 主从复合句(第六段)
  6.Frequently, departments or units within an organization make decisions that are good for them individually but that are less than optimal for the larger organization.(第六段)
  7.Some of these objectives are more important than others, but the order and degree of importance often vary from person to person and from department to department. (第七段)
  8.When presented with a common case, sales managers tend to see sales problems, production managers see production problems, and so on. (第七段)   

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