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山西自考《英语(二)》复习资料--Text B Worlds within Worlds2

山西自考网 发布时间:2012年07月22日

 词汇讲解:
  1.revolve v.旋转,绕转
  The earth revolves round / around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。
  2.solar adj.太阳的,日光的,利用太阳光的 例:the solar system 太阳系
  3.whereas : conj.而,却,反之
  He must be about sixty, whereas his wife looks about thirty.他一定有60岁了,而他的妻子看起来只有30岁。
  You eat a massive plate of food for lunch, whereas I have just a sandwich.你中午吃了一大盘食物,而我只吃了个三明治。
  4.concerned : 有关的,关心的,担心的
  I was quite a shock for all concerned.这对所有有关人士都是一个震惊。
  Her job is something concerned with English.她的工作和英语有关。
  5.tropical adj.热带的,炎热的
  Id love to live somewhere with a tropical climate.
  我想生活在某个属于热带气候的地方
  August was almost tropical this year.今年八月十分炎热
  6.circumstance n.环境,情况,境遇
  We cant decide until we know all the circumstances.
  大家只有在了解所有的情况后才能作出决定。

  词组
  1.a great many , a good many 很多 后边加可数名词)
  2.above all : 最重要的,尤其;首先
  Above all , dont forget to write.最重要的是别忘了写信。
  In choosing the curtain for a room, you should consider the material from the point of view of texture, its weight, its pattern - but its colour above all .在挑选房间窗帘面料时,你应该考虑质地、重量和图案等,但最重要的是颜色。
  3.as a rule : 在多数情况下,通常,一般而言 = usually
  As a rule Im home by six.我通常六点前在家。
  As a rule, I only read detective novels.通常我只读侦探小说。
  4.together with : 和,连同
  These new facts, together with the other evidence, prove the prisoners innocence.这些新的事实连同其他证据证明这个犯人清白无辜。
  John, together with his brother, has gone to the party.约翰连同他的兄弟一起去参加宴会了。
  注意together with 作插入语时,句子的谓语动词的数取决于前面的主语。

  重点句子:
  1.The stars which we see glittering in the sky on a dark and cloudless night are almost certainly the suns of other solar systems more or less like our own, but they are so far away in space that it is unlikely that we shall ever get to know very much about them.
  which 引导定语从句
  so… that…结果状语从句中it为形式主语
  2.The earth is, however, very different from the moon, which the American astronauts have found to be without life or vegetation, whereas our earth is very much alive in every respect.
  which引导非限定性定语从句,修饰the moon
  vegetation 植物
  whereas = while 然而
  alive意为"有活力的",在句中作表语。类似的形容词还有afraid, alone, alike, asleep, awake, aware
  in every respect 在每一个方面
  3.In most of the oceans and seas some of the water is found to be flowing in a particular direction that is to say, from one part towards another part of the ocean or sea concerned.
  to be flowing不定式作主语补语
  concerned 是分词作定语,修饰the ocean or sea
  4.There are many thousands of currents in the waters of the oceans and seas ,but only certain of the stronger and better marked currents are specially named and of great importance.
  Thousands/hundreds of + 名词复数
  Eg.Hundreds of meters
  此处waters指的是"大片的水,水域"
  peoples 表示人种
  woods 表示森林,树木
  5.The circumstances under which different people live make a great difference between the way in which they live and the way in which we live, and it ought to be our business to try to understand those different circumstances so that we can better understand people of other lands.
  三个定语从句,由under which 两个in which 引导,
  第一个:under which different people live 修饰 circumstances
  第二个:in which they live 修饰 the way
  第三个:in which we live 修饰 the way
  ought to = should 应该
  business 责任,业务
  it是形式主语,真正主语是to try to understand those different circumstances
  目的状语从句,由so that引导
  other lands 其它国家
  6.Above all, we should avoid deciding what we think about people different from ourselves without first having learned a great deal about them and the kind of lives they have to live.
  注意动词 avoid 后接动名词作宾语
  decide 判定
  what 引导宾语从句作deciding的宾语
  they have to live 是省略连词的定语从句,修饰lives
  7.It is true to say that the more we learn about other people, the better we understand their ideas and, as a rule, the better we like those people themselves.
  注意 the more …, the better…, the better … 比较结构

  Unit 2 补充语法常识
  that which引导定语从句的异同点 :
  that不可引导非限制性定语从句 which可引导非限制性定语从句
  that 不可用作介词宾语 which可用作介词宾语 介词+ which
  in that "在于" 是复合连词,非介词宾语
  that 可以用于指代人或物 which不可以用于指代人
  当先行词是不定代词、序数词、形容词最高级所修饰的词时,只能用that而不能用which引导定语从句
  比如everything, anything, first, second

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