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山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text A The New Music

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月06日

Text A The New Music

 

I.课文概况
  六十年代后期在美国和英国几乎同时出现的新音乐,它来源于已经存在的三种音乐形式:布鲁斯blues,摇滚乐rocknroll和民间音乐folk music。这三种旧的音乐各自有其特点。

  新音乐从这三种以及其他的音乐形式中自由地汲取元素,并发展成一种全新的、更具表现力的音乐,它采取全新的电子乐器和扬声器技术,加上灯光背景效果,使听众融入整个音乐氛围当中。
  本文从三个方面分别先容了新音乐与旧音乐的不同点
  Para.1 The three existing music forms had their characteristics respectively.
  
Paras.2-4 The new music originated from the existing music forms but differs from them in three main respects.
  

  II.New Words
  1.blues n. 布鲁斯(源于美国南部黑人之中抑郁伤感的曲调)

  2.rocknroll n. 摇滚乐
  3.folk n./a.人们,家属;民间的
  4.musician n. 音乐家,作曲家
  5.transformation n. 变化,转化;改造
  6.rhythmic a. 有韵律的,有节奏的
  7.musically ad. 在音乐方面;好听地
  8.distinct a. 与其他不同的,独特的
  9.consciousness n. 意识,知觉;
  10.youthful a. 年轻的,朝气蓬勃的
  11.anti-war a. 反战的
  12.sentiment n. 感情,情绪
  13.spontaneous a.自发的,本能的,自动的
  14.originate vi./vt. 发源;发生
  15.imitator n. 模仿者
  16.Negro n./a. 黑人,黑人的
  17.eclecticism n. 折中主义
  18.synthesis n. 结合,合成
  19.jazz n. 爵士乐
  20.readily ad.乐意地,很快地,容易地
  21.limitless a. 无限制的,无限的
  22.instrument n. 仪器,乐器
  23.electronic a.电子的
  24.amplifier n.放大器
  25.guitar n.六弦琴,吉他
  26.electronics n.电子学
  27.studio n.工作室;播音室
  28.penetrating a.穿透的,贯穿的,深刻的
  29.thereby ad.由此,从而
  30.passive a.被动的;消极的
  31.participant n./a.参加者,参与的
  32.multimedia a./n. 多种手段的,多媒体的
  33.ballroom n. 舞厅
  34.lighting n.照明,照明设备
  Phrases and Expressions
  1.to take place 发生

  2.to take over 接管,接任
  3.to take on 具有,担任,雇佣
  Proper Name
  Beatle 披头士摇滚乐队

  San Francisco 旧金山
  Bob Dylan 鲍伯.狄伦
  Jefferson Airplane 杰佛逊飞机
  词汇精讲

  rocknrollrock and roll or rocking and reeling 摇滚乐
  folk n. 家属,亲属
  How are all your folks?
  Jazz 爵士乐

  Rap music 说唱乐

  Pop music 流行乐
  Classical music 古典音乐
  Music musician 音乐家
  Musical 音乐的 musically adv.
  rhythmic adj. 节奏的

  rhythm n.节奏,韵律
  rhyme n. 压韵
  distinct : a.独特的,明显的
  派生词:distinction n. 区分,辨别,分清
  用法:distinct … from :区分于
  Gold is distinct form iron. 金不同于铁。

  I saw three distinct objects in the distance, but I cannot identify them.
  我清楚地看到远处的3个物体,但不能分辨是什么东西。

  consciousness : n. 意识,知觉,觉悟
  派生词:conscious a. 有意识的,有知觉的;consciously ad. 有意识地,自觉地
  subconscious a. 潜意识的
  He lost consciousness after his accident and never recovered it.
  发生事故后,他失去了知觉,再也没有恢复。

  Working in an unemployment office had helped to raise his political consciousness.
  在失业办公室工作使他的政治觉悟得到提高。

  Were you conscious of his hostility? 你有没有意识到他的敌意?
  anti-slavery anti- 表反对,抗,排斥
  anti-SARS 抗非典的  anti-Virus 反病毒的
  sentiment的同义词:feeling,但前者指比较细腻的感情;而feeling一般指感觉
  spontaneousa.自发的,本能的,自动的
  Her speech seemed spontaneous, but was in fact carefully prepared beforehand.
  她的演讲看起来是即兴的,但实际上事先经过了精心准备。

  A crowd of people gathered spontaneously at the scene of the accident.
  一群人自发地聚集在事故现场。

  a group of 一群
  
originate vt.
  original a. 独到的

  originality n. 独创,原始
  Negroblack people 黑人 white people 白人
  readily : 乐意地,很快地,容易地
  The younger mechanic readily fixed the car. 年轻的机修工很快地把车修好了。
  She readily accepted his proposal of marriage.她乐意地接受了他的求婚。
  词根:-less ,-ic, -cs
  therebyadv. 由此,从而

  She wished to travel abroad and thereby she could learn about different customs.
  她希翼能去国外旅游,从而了解不同的风俗习惯。

  He became a citizen, thereby gaining the right to vote. 他成了一名公民,由此获得了选举权。

  passive : 被动的,消极的
  反义词:active a. 积极的,活跃的
  You are passive when you allow things to happen, but do nothing. 当你让这些事发生,而不做任何事来阻止它,你是消极的。
  participant : 参加者,参与者
  派生词:participate v. 参加,参与;participation n. 参加
  All participants finishing the race will receive a medal. 所有完成比赛的参与者都将得到一枚奖牌。相关用法:participate in 参与
  We should actively participate in the mass sports activities. 大家应该积极参加群众性体育活动。
  1.to take place: 发生
  take place = happen
  Great changes have taken place over the past 20 years. 在过去的20年里,中国发生了巨大的变化。

  The strike didnt take place after all. 罢工没有发生。
  区别:take place take the place of
  take place“发生;而take the place of“代替

  例如:Do you think the robots can take the place of mans tasks?
  你认为机器人能代替人的工作吗?

  to take over:接管,接任
  He is going to take over my job while I am on holiday. 我去度假时他将接替我的工作。
  This large company has taken over many small ones. 这个大企业已经接管许多小企业。
  to take on 具有;担任(工作等);雇佣
  Dont take on more than you can do .不要接受你担负不了的任务。
  The city took on a festive air. 这个城市呈现出了一派节日气氛。
  The firm took on a new clerk.企业雇了个新职员。
  
  III.课文精讲
  第一部分:para.1
  
The new music was built out of materials already in existence: blues, rocknroll, folk music. But although the forms remained, something completely new and original was made out of these older elements - more original, perhaps, than even the new musicians themselves yet realize. The transformation took place in 1966- 1967. Up to that time, the blues had been an essentially black medium. Rocknroll, a blues derivative, was rhythmic dance music. Folk music, old and modern, was popular among college students. The three forms remained musically and culturally distinct, and even as late as 1965, none of them were expressing any radically new states of consciousness. Blues expressed black soul; rock was the beat of youthful energy; and folk music expressed anti-war sentiments as well as love and hope.
  1.in existence 表示现有的,已有的。was build out of 是词组表示当中产生

  本句意思是:新音乐是从已有的音乐:布鲁斯,摇滚乐,民间音乐中产生的。
  2."although … remained" 是让步状语从句。
  "completely new and original" 是一个后置定语,修饰“something”
  本句意思是:虽然新音乐保留了原有的形式,但某些全新的、独创性的东西从旧的
  成分中脱颖而出--它们也许比新音乐家意识到的还要更富有独创性。
  3.Up to that time,the blues had been an essentially black medium. Rocknroll, a blues derivative, was rhythmic dance music.
  Up to that time, 意为到那个时候(即新音乐产生时)为止,表示过去的过去,所以谓语用过去完成时。a blues derivative rocknroll 的同位语。

  4.The three forms remained musically and culturally distinct, and even as late as 1965,none of them were expressing any radically new state of consciousness.
  musically and culturally distinct 意思是在音乐上和学问上都是不同的

  new state of consciousness 指新的意识状态


  第二部分 paras.2-4
  
Para.2
  
In 1966-1967 there was spontaneous transformation. In the United States, it originated with youthful rock groups playing in San Francisco. In England, it was led by the Beatles, who were already established as an extremely fine and highly individual rock group. What happened, as well as it can be put into words, was this.First the separate musical traditions were brought together. Bob Dylan and the Jefferson Airplane played folk rock, folk ideas with a rock beat. White rock groups began experimenting with the blues. Of course, white musicians had always played the blues, but essentially as imitators of the Negro style; now it began to be the white bands own music. And all of the groups moved towards a broader eclecticism and synthesis. They freely took over elements from jazz, from America country music, and as time went on from even more diverse sources. What developed was a music readily taking on various forms and capable of an almost limitless range of expression.
  
5.In England, it was led by the Beatles, who were already established as an extremely fine and highly individual rock group.
  be established as 意为被确认为

  全句大意为在英国,这个潮流是由披头士摇滚乐队领导的,该乐队已经得到广泛认可,是一支非常优秀且极富个性的乐队。

  
6.What happened , as well as it can be put into words, was this.
  as well as 一样好,比较结构,to put into words“用文字表达

  大意为发生的情况,如果能用文字表达,就是这样。

  
7.First the separate musical traditions were brought together.
  新音乐的第一个特点:将各种分离的音乐传统结合到一起。

  8.They freely took over elements from jazz, from America country music,and as time went on from even more diverse sources.
  and 后面的并列句中可以看作是省略了
"they freely took over elements."
  "as time went on"表示随着时间推移as 是连词,而"readily taking on various forms" "capable of an almost limitless range of expression" 分别为现在分词短语和形容词短语作定语,修饰
music.
  本句意思是,他们自由地吸取爵士音乐、美国乡土音乐的成分,而随着时间的推移,他们甚至对各种各样的音乐兼收并蓄。

  9.What happened was a music readily taking on various forms and capable of an almost limitless range of expression .
  What happened 是主语从句。 readily taking on various forms 是现在分词短语和形容词短语 capable of an almost limitless range of expression .都是作定语,修饰
music.
  全句大意是最后发展成一种能轻松采取多种形式的,几乎有无穷的表现力的新音乐

  Para.3 新音乐的第二个特点:广泛使用电子乐器及电子放大器技术

  The second thing that happened was that all the musical groups began using the full range of electric instruments and the technology of electronic amplifiers. The electric guitar was an old instrument, but the new electronic effects were altogether different - so different that a new listener in 1967 might well feel that there had never been any sounds like that in the world before. Electronics did, in fact, make possible sounds that no instrument up to that time could produce. And in studio recordings, new techniques made possible effects that not even an electronic band could produce live. Electronic amplifiers also made possible a fantastic increase in volume, the music becoming as loud and penetrating as the human ear could stand, and thereby achieving a "total" effect, so that instead of an audience of passive listeners, there were now audiences of total participants, feeling the music in all of their senses and all of their bones.
  
10.The second thing that happened was that all the musical groups began using the full range of electric instruments and the technology of electronic amplifiers.
  句中"that happened"是一个定语从句,修饰"the second thing."

  后一个"that"引导表语从句。
  本句意思是:发生的第二件事是所有乐队都开始使用全套的电子乐器和电子扬声器技术。
  11.so different that a new listener in 1967 might well feel that there had never been any sounds like that in the world before.
  本句中有三个that, 第一个引导结果状语从句,第二个引导表语从句,第三个是指示代词,指的是电吉他发出的声音。注意表语从句中用的时态是过去完成时,说明电吉他的效果与1967 年前大不相同。

  12.Electronics did, in fact, make possible sounds that no instrument up to that time could produce.
  did make 为强调形式。 possible 在句中作宾语补语,提前到宾语sounds,因为它有一个较长的定语从句修饰。

  13.And in studio recordings, new techniques made possible effects that not even an electronic band could produce live.
  本句的顺序应为"In studio recordings, new techniques made effects that not even an electronic band could produce live possible""effects …live" made 的宾语,其中that 引导定语从句,修饰effect , possible 则是effects 的宾语补足语。因为effects 带有一个定语从句,从句比较长,为避免句子不平衡,因此把possible 提前。本句意思是在录音室录制时,新技术有可能制作出甚至电子乐队现场表演时也演奏不出的效果。

  14.Electronic amplifiers also made possible a fantastic increase in volume, the music becoming as loud and penetrating as the human ear could stand, and thereby achieving a "total" effect, so that instead of an audience of passive listeners, there were now audiences of total participants, feeling the music in all of their senses and all of their bones.
  分词独立结构:the music becoming as loud and penetrating as the human ear could stand 在句中作伴随状语。 music becoming 的逻辑主语,so that 相当于结果状语从句。 feeling 现在分词短语作伴随状语。

  Para.4 新音乐的第三个特点:音乐成为整个环境的一部分
  Third, the music becomes a multi-media experience; a part of a total environment. The walls of the ballrooms were covered with changing patterns of light, the beginning of the new art of the light show. And the audience did not sit, it danced. With records at home, listeners imitated these lighting effects as best they could, and heightened the whole experience by using drugs. Often music was played out of doors, where nature provided the environment.
  15.句中 "with records at home"with + 名词+介词短语结构,作方式状语。

  "heightened the whole experience" 使整个体验更刺激
  本句意思是在家里欣赏唱片时候听众尽力模仿照明效果,甚至服用毒品来增强整个音乐享受的快感。
  附:重点句
  1.The new music was built out of materials already in existence: blues, rocknroll, folk music.
  
2.But although the forms remained, something completely new and original was made out of these older elements - more original, perhaps, than even the new musicians themselves yet realize.
  
3.Up to that time, the blues had been an essentially black medium.
  
4.The three forms remained musically and culturally distinct, and even as late as 1965, none of them were expressing any radically new states of consciousness.
  
5.In England, it was led by the Beatles, who were already established as an extremely fine and highly individual rock group.
  
6.What happened, as well as it can be put into words, was this. They freely took over elements from jazz, from America country music, and as time went on from even more diverse sources. What developed was a music readily taking on various forms and capable of an almost limitless range of expression.
  
7.The second thing that happened was that all the musical groups began using the full range of electric instruments and the technology of electronic amplifiers. The electric guitar was an old instrument, but the new electronic effects were altogether different - so different that a new listener in 1967 might well feel that there had never been any sounds like that in the world before. Electronics did, in fact, make possible sounds that no instrument up to that time could produce. And in studio recordings, new techniques made possible effects that not even an electronic band could produce live. Electronic amplifiers also made possible a fantastic increase in volume, the music becoming as loud and penetrating as the human ear could stand, and thereby achieving a "total" effect, so that instead of an audience of passive listeners, there were now audiences of total participants, feeling the music in all of their senses and all of their bones.
  8.With records at home, listeners imitated these lighting effects as best they could, and heightened the whole experience by using drugs.

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