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山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text A Jet Lag: Prevention and Cure

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月07日

Text A Jet Lag: Prevention and Cure

 

课文概况:
  大家许多人在国际旅行时都有过时差反应。
  科学家们发现,时差综合症是大家体内的生理调节机制在不同的环境中发生变化所引起的。实际上,有两套时间调节系统在相互作用,它们在新时区内需要一段时间才能重新设定。
  值得庆幸的是,大家可以通过调节环境和改变饮食睡眠来减少时差带来的不便。
  Para.1 If you understand what Jet Lag is, your flights will be less stressful.
  
Paras.2 – 9 Various causes of Jet Lag
  
Paras.10 – 14 Ways to deal with the bad effects of Jet Lag
  New Words

  1 jet

 n. 喷射,喷气式飞机

  2 lag

 vi./n. 走得慢,落后

  3 flight

 n. 飞行,飞翔

  4 physiological

 a. 生理的,生理学的

  5 regulatory

 a. 规章的,调节的

  6 mechanism

 n. 机构,机制

  7 hormonal

 a. 荷尔蒙的,激素的

  8 secretary

 n. 秘书,书记,部长

  9 negotiation

 n. 谈判,协商

  10 proceeding

 n. 程序,进程

  11 instantaneously

 ad. 瞬间地,即刻地

  12 transport

 vt./n. 运输

  13 overcome

 vt. 战胜;克服

  14 regulate

 vt./n. 管理,调节

  15 timing

 n. 时间的选择;计时

  16 periodicity

 n. 周期性,间发性

  17 internal

 a. 内部的,内在的

  18 suprachiasmatic

 a. 超(染色体)交叉的

  19 rhythm

 n. 韵律,格律,节奏

  20 timer

 n. 计时员,定时器

  21 external

 a. 外在的,在外的

  22 alarm

 n./vt. 警报,惊恐,向报警,使警觉

  23 reset

 vt./n. 重新安排,重调

  24 palm

 n. 手掌

  25 sweat

 n./vi./vt. 汗,出汗,使出汗

  26 discrepancy

 n. 差异,不一致

  27 bodily

 a. 身体的,肉体的

  28 cortisol

 n. 皮质醇

  29 excretion

 n. 排泄;分泌

  30 destination

 n.目的地,终点

  31 feasible

 a. 可行的,可能的

  32 pharmacological

 a. 药物学的,药理学的

  33 assumption

 n. 假定,设想;承担

  34 mid-afternoon

 a. 下午三点左右的

  35 neutral

 a.中立的;中性的

  36 wakefulness

 n. 觉醒,不眠

  37 promote

 vt. 促进,发扬;提升,升级,发起,创办

  38 synchronize

vi./vt.同时发生,同步,使在时间上一致

  词组:phrases and Expressions

  1 effect on

 对的作用

  2 to blame … on

 把归咎于

  3 to advantage

 有利地,有效地

  4 as fresh as paint

 精神饱满

  5 now that

 (连词)既然,由于

  6 to leave … alone

 不管,不理

  7 out of step

 步伐不一致,不协调

  8 in time

 及时,终于

  to come across

 遇到,碰到

  to tie … to

 使有联系,约束

  to rely on / upon

 依赖,依靠

  词汇精讲:
  lag: v/n.走得慢,落后

  After I get over jet-lag, Ill call you. 我倒过时差后给你打电话。
  Hes lagging behind a bit, and I think wed better wait for him to catch us up.
  他有点落后了,我想大家最好等他赶上来吧。

  There is often a lag between becoming affected by this illness and its first signs.
  受这种疾病的感染和出现最初症状之间经常会间隔一段时间。

  His actions lagged behind his thinking. 在他的思想和行动之间存在很大差异。
  overcome: v. 战胜,克服
  Support from his family and his own survivor instincts have helped him overcome obstacles.
  家人的支撑和求生的本能帮助他克服了障碍。

  The learner of a second language has many obstacles to overcome.
  学第二语言的人有许多障碍要克服。

  First of all, we should overcome ourselves in order to overcome difficulties.
  要战胜困难,首先要战胜自己。

  feasible: a. 可行的,可能的
  Your plan sounds quite feasible. 你的计划听起来是可行的。
  Now that we have the extra resources, the scheme seems feasible.
  既然大家有了额外的财力,这一方案就可行了。

  The plan seems to be feasible. 这个计划似乎是可行的。
  assumption: n. 假定,设想,承担,采取
  派生词:assume v. 假定,设想
  His assumption proved to be wrong. 他的设想被证明是错的。
  You will assume your new duties tomorrow. 你们明天开始实行新任务。
  promote: vt. 促进,发扬,提升
  派生词:promotion n. 促进,发扬
  He certainly ought to be promoted. 他的确应该被提升。
  The company is promoting their new sort of soap on television.
  企业正在电视上为这种新香皂促销。

  We should promote the mutual understanding between the two countries.
  大家要增进两国之间的相互了解。

  词组:
  1 effect on: 的作用,影响
  It had an almost immediate effect on his thinking. 这事几乎立即对他的想法有了影响。
  Violent TV programs have a bad effect on children. 暴力电视节目对孩子有不好的影响。
  相似词组: influence on: 有影响。
  to blame on: .. 归咎于
  He blamed his failure on his teacher. 他把他的失败怪在老师的头上。
  They blamed the failure of the action on George.
  他们把此次行动失败归咎于乔治。

  相关词语: to blame … for
  The accountant was blamed for his error. 这个会计由于出错而受到谴责。

  to advantage: 有利地,有效地
  More practice will be to your advantage. 多练习对你有利。
  It is to your advantage to invest wisely. 明智地投资对你很有利。
  The model is seeking a chance to display herself to advantage.
  那位模特正在寻找一个机会来有利地显示自己。

  4 now that: 既然,由于
  Now that you have come you may as well stay. 既然你来了还是待着吧。
  Now that oil is scarce, the fate of the motorcar is uncertain.
  由于石油短缺,汽车将来的命运如何就难以预料了。

  to leave …alone: 不管,不理;听其自然
  Leave me alone – take your hand off my arm. 别动我松开我的胳膊。
  I should leave that question alone if I were you. 如果我是你的话,我不会去碰这个问题。
  out of step: 步伐不一致,不协调
  That boy was out of step during most of the parade.
  在游行检阅的大部分时间里,那个男孩的步伐都与别人的不合拍。

  Im not good at dancing – I always get hopelessly out of step.
  我不善长跳舞总是踩不上点,已经无可救药了。

  He is out of step with modern life. 他同现代生活不合拍。

  课文精讲:
  Jet Lag: Prevention and Cure
  The problem of
Jet Lag is one every international traveler comes across at some time.⑴ But do you have to suffer? Understand what it is, and how a careful diet can minimize its worst effects, and your flights will be less stressful. ⑵
  1.此句中“one”代替前面出现过的“problem”,every international traveler comes across at some time 是定语从句修饰one, 省略了关系词that whichto come across 意思是遇到,碰到
  全句意思:喷气飞机时差综合症是每个乘坐国际航班旅行的人在某个时候会碰到的问题。

  2.Understand what it is…这是个祈使句,相当于一个条件状语从句:If you understand what it is…
  例句:Work hard and youll succeed. 相当于
If you work hard, youll succeed.
  The effects of rapid travel on the body are actually far more disturbing than we realize.⑶Jet Lag is not a
psychological consequence of having to readjust to a different time zone. It is due to changes in the bodys physiological regulatory mechanisms, specifically the hormonal systems, in a different environment.
  3.此句是个比较结构。disturbing 是分词式的形容词,比较级是more disturbingfar 用来修饰比较级。
  此句意思:乘飞机旅行对身体的影响实际上远比大家意识到的更令人焦灼不安。
  Confused? So was John Foster Dulles, the American
Secretary of State, when he flew to Egypt to conduct negotiations on the Aswan Dam ⑷He later blamed his poor judgment on Jet Lag.
  4.此句中confused 的完整表达是 “Are you confused?” 后一句用了倒装语序,so 位于句首,表示前面所说的情况也适合于本句。Blame…on…把过失归咎于。
  此句意思:是不是被弄糊涂啦?美国国务卿约翰·福斯特·杜勒斯从美国飞往埃及谈判阿斯旺水坝问题时就被弄糊涂了。他后来把自己在谈判中判断失误归咎于时差综合症。
  The effects can be used to advantage, too. President Johnson once conducted an important meeting in Guam and kept the entire
proceedings at Washington DC time. The White House working personnel were as fresh as paint, while the locals, in this case, were jet-lagged.⑸Essentially, they had been instantaneously transported to America.
  5.该句是由 while 连接的两个并列句,表示前后对比。in this case 作状语,译为在这种情况下,” the locals 是指关岛的本地人,作主语。
  Now that we understand what Jet Lag is, we can go some way to
overcoming it.⑹ A great number of the bodys events are scheduled to occur at a certain time of day. Naturally these have to be regulated, and there are two regulatory systems which interact.
  6.now that we understand what Jet Lag is, 原因状语从句中有一个what引导的宾语从句,意为既然大家了解了时差综合症是什么
  One
timing system comes from the evidence of our senses and stomachs, and the periodicity we experience when living in a particular time zone.⑺ The other belongs in our internal clocks the major one of which may be physically located in a part of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus which, left alone, would tie the body to a 25 hour — yes, 25 — rhythm.⑻ Normally the two timers are in step, and the external cues tend to regularise the internal clocks to the more convenient 24 hour period.
  7.该句主干结构是“one timing system comes from….”; from 有两个宾语,由and 连接。
  此句意思:一个定时系统来自大家的感官和胃肠饥饿感以及大家在某个特定时区所经受的周期性变化。
  8.该句的主干结构“The other belongs in our internal clocks …”which 引导定语从句修饰our internal clocks。在定语从句中,left alone 是过去分词词组作条件状语,相当于条件状语从句If it is left alone。括号中的定语从句也修饰our internal clocks
  此句意思:另一个定时系统在大家的体内时钟内(其中一个主要时钟可能位于大家大脑的称为超交叉核的那部分中)这些体内时钟在不受干扰时,会使人体有一个25小时——是的,25小时——的生理节奏。
  If, however, you move the whole body to a time zone which is four hours different, the two clocks will be out of step, like two
alarm clocks which are normally set together, but which have been reset a few hours apart. ⑼ Whereas the two clocks would normally sound their alarms together, now they ring at different times. 10Similarly, the body can be set for evening while the sun is rising.
  9.“which is four hours different”是定语从句修饰zone “ which are normally set together” “ which have been reset a few hour apart” 是两个定语从句修饰 clocks

  此句意思:然而如果你把整个身体移到一个时差4个小时的时区,两个时钟就不再同步,正像两个闹钟通常被一起定时,但现在定时相差几个小时。
  10.whereas连接让步状语从句,意为尽管,虽然全句的大意是:尽管两个闹钟通常同时报时,但现在则在不同时间报时。
  In time the
physiological system will reset itself, but it does take time.⑾ One easily monitored rhythm is palm sweating. A man flown to a time zone different by 10 hours will take eight days to readjust his palm sweat. Blood pressure, which is also rhythmical, takes four days to readjust.12
  11.In time the physiological system will reset itself, but it does take time.
  it does take time 是强调谓语动词。经过一段时间后,生理系统将会自我调整过来,但这需要时间。

  12.which 引导非限制性定语从句, 修饰blood pressure.
  此句意思:血压也是有节奏性的,需要4天才能调整过来。

  One reason for this
discrepancy is that different bodily events are controlled by different factors. 13 The hormone cortisol, which controls salt and water excretion, is made in the morning, wherever the body is. But the growth hormone is released during sleep, whenever in the day that sleep occurs. 14 Normally these two hormones are separated by seven or eight hours, but if the body arrives at a destination in the early morning local and goes to sleep as soon as possible, the two hormones will be released simultaneously.
  13.此句是一个表语从句,that 引导一个从句作表语。此句意思:出现这种差异的一个原因是人体的不同活动受到不同因素的支配。

  14.whenever 引导时间状语从句。Whenever in the day 意为不管在一天中的什么时候that sleep 是从句的主语,that 是指示代词修饰sleep
  全句意思:但生长激素在睡眠时才分泌,而不论一天中什么时候睡觉。
  What can we do about it? It is not
feasible to wait four days until the body is used to the new time zone. Fortunately there is a short cut. It relies on two things — the power of the stomach to regulate the timing of other events, and the pharmacological actions of coffee.
  The basic assumptions
are:
  Coffee delays the body clock in the morning, and advances it at night. Coffee at mid-afternoon is neutral.
15
  15.该句中neutral 意为中性的,在这里是与上文的delay advance 相对,表示既不推迟,也不提前译为:下午三点左右喝咖啡对人体时钟不起作用。
  Protein in meals stimulates
wakefulness, while carbohydrates promote sleep.
  Putting food into an empty stomach helps synchronize the body clock.

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