山西自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text A Jet Lag: Prevention and Cure

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月07日

Text A Jet Lag: Prevention and Cure


  Para.1 If you understand what Jet Lag is, your flights will be less stressful.
Paras.2 – 9 Various causes of Jet Lag
Paras.10 – 14 Ways to deal with the bad effects of Jet Lag
  New Words

  1 jet

 n. 喷射,喷气式飞机

  2 lag

 vi./n. 走得慢,落后

  3 flight

 n. 飞行,飞翔

  4 physiological

 a. 生理的,生理学的

  5 regulatory

 a. 规章的,调节的

  6 mechanism

 n. 机构,机制

  7 hormonal

 a. 荷尔蒙的,激素的

  8 secretary

 n. 秘书,书记,部长

  9 negotiation

 n. 谈判,协商

  10 proceeding

 n. 程序,进程

  11 instantaneously

 ad. 瞬间地,即刻地

  12 transport

 vt./n. 运输

  13 overcome

 vt. 战胜;克服

  14 regulate

 vt./n. 管理,调节

  15 timing

 n. 时间的选择;计时

  16 periodicity

 n. 周期性,间发性

  17 internal

 a. 内部的,内在的

  18 suprachiasmatic

 a. 超(染色体)交叉的

  19 rhythm

 n. 韵律,格律,节奏

  20 timer

 n. 计时员,定时器

  21 external

 a. 外在的,在外的

  22 alarm

 n./vt. 警报,惊恐,向报警,使警觉

  23 reset

 vt./n. 重新安排,重调

  24 palm

 n. 手掌

  25 sweat

 n./vi./vt. 汗,出汗,使出汗

  26 discrepancy

 n. 差异,不一致

  27 bodily

 a. 身体的,肉体的

  28 cortisol

 n. 皮质醇

  29 excretion

 n. 排泄;分泌

  30 destination


  31 feasible

 a. 可行的,可能的

  32 pharmacological

 a. 药物学的,药理学的

  33 assumption

 n. 假定,设想;承担

  34 mid-afternoon

 a. 下午三点左右的

  35 neutral


  36 wakefulness

 n. 觉醒,不眠

  37 promote

 vt. 促进,发扬;提升,升级,发起,创办

  38 synchronize


  词组:phrases and Expressions

  1 effect on


  2 to blame … on


  3 to advantage


  4 as fresh as paint


  5 now that


  6 to leave … alone


  7 out of step


  8 in time


  to come across


  to tie … to


  to rely on / upon


  lag: v/n.走得慢,落后

  After I get over jet-lag, Ill call you. 我倒过时差后给你打电话。
  Hes lagging behind a bit, and I think wed better wait for him to catch us up.

  There is often a lag between becoming affected by this illness and its first signs.

  His actions lagged behind his thinking. 在他的思想和行动之间存在很大差异。
  overcome: v. 战胜,克服
  Support from his family and his own survivor instincts have helped him overcome obstacles.

  The learner of a second language has many obstacles to overcome.

  First of all, we should overcome ourselves in order to overcome difficulties.

  feasible: a. 可行的,可能的
  Your plan sounds quite feasible. 你的计划听起来是可行的。
  Now that we have the extra resources, the scheme seems feasible.

  The plan seems to be feasible. 这个计划似乎是可行的。
  assumption: n. 假定,设想,承担,采取
  派生词:assume v. 假定,设想
  His assumption proved to be wrong. 他的设想被证明是错的。
  You will assume your new duties tomorrow. 你们明天开始实行新任务。
  promote: vt. 促进,发扬,提升
  派生词:promotion n. 促进,发扬
  He certainly ought to be promoted. 他的确应该被提升。
  The company is promoting their new sort of soap on television.

  We should promote the mutual understanding between the two countries.

  1 effect on: 的作用,影响
  It had an almost immediate effect on his thinking. 这事几乎立即对他的想法有了影响。
  Violent TV programs have a bad effect on children. 暴力电视节目对孩子有不好的影响。
  相似词组: influence on: 有影响。
  to blame on: .. 归咎于
  He blamed his failure on his teacher. 他把他的失败怪在老师的头上。
  They blamed the failure of the action on George.

  相关词语: to blame … for
  The accountant was blamed for his error. 这个会计由于出错而受到谴责。

  to advantage: 有利地,有效地
  More practice will be to your advantage. 多练习对你有利。
  It is to your advantage to invest wisely. 明智地投资对你很有利。
  The model is seeking a chance to display herself to advantage.

  4 now that: 既然,由于
  Now that you have come you may as well stay. 既然你来了还是待着吧。
  Now that oil is scarce, the fate of the motorcar is uncertain.

  to leave …alone: 不管,不理;听其自然
  Leave me alone – take your hand off my arm. 别动我松开我的胳膊。
  I should leave that question alone if I were you. 如果我是你的话,我不会去碰这个问题。
  out of step: 步伐不一致,不协调
  That boy was out of step during most of the parade.

  Im not good at dancing – I always get hopelessly out of step.

  He is out of step with modern life. 他同现代生活不合拍。

  Jet Lag: Prevention and Cure
  The problem of
Jet Lag is one every international traveler comes across at some time.⑴ But do you have to suffer? Understand what it is, and how a careful diet can minimize its worst effects, and your flights will be less stressful. ⑵
  1.此句中“one”代替前面出现过的“problem”,every international traveler comes across at some time 是定语从句修饰one, 省略了关系词that whichto come across 意思是遇到,碰到

  2.Understand what it is…这是个祈使句,相当于一个条件状语从句:If you understand what it is…
  例句:Work hard and youll succeed. 相当于
If you work hard, youll succeed.
  The effects of rapid travel on the body are actually far more disturbing than we realize.⑶Jet Lag is not a
psychological consequence of having to readjust to a different time zone. It is due to changes in the bodys physiological regulatory mechanisms, specifically the hormonal systems, in a different environment.
  3.此句是个比较结构。disturbing 是分词式的形容词,比较级是more disturbingfar 用来修饰比较级。
  Confused? So was John Foster Dulles, the American
Secretary of State, when he flew to Egypt to conduct negotiations on the Aswan Dam ⑷He later blamed his poor judgment on Jet Lag.
  4.此句中confused 的完整表达是 “Are you confused?” 后一句用了倒装语序,so 位于句首,表示前面所说的情况也适合于本句。Blame…on…把过失归咎于。
  The effects can be used to advantage, too. President Johnson once conducted an important meeting in Guam and kept the entire
proceedings at Washington DC time. The White House working personnel were as fresh as paint, while the locals, in this case, were jet-lagged.⑸Essentially, they had been instantaneously transported to America.
  5.该句是由 while 连接的两个并列句,表示前后对比。in this case 作状语,译为在这种情况下,” the locals 是指关岛的本地人,作主语。
  Now that we understand what Jet Lag is, we can go some way to
overcoming it.⑹ A great number of the bodys events are scheduled to occur at a certain time of day. Naturally these have to be regulated, and there are two regulatory systems which interact.
  6.now that we understand what Jet Lag is, 原因状语从句中有一个what引导的宾语从句,意为既然大家了解了时差综合症是什么
timing system comes from the evidence of our senses and stomachs, and the periodicity we experience when living in a particular time zone.⑺ The other belongs in our internal clocks the major one of which may be physically located in a part of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus which, left alone, would tie the body to a 25 hour — yes, 25 — rhythm.⑻ Normally the two timers are in step, and the external cues tend to regularise the internal clocks to the more convenient 24 hour period.
  7.该句主干结构是“one timing system comes from….”; from 有两个宾语,由and 连接。
  8.该句的主干结构“The other belongs in our internal clocks …”which 引导定语从句修饰our internal clocks。在定语从句中,left alone 是过去分词词组作条件状语,相当于条件状语从句If it is left alone。括号中的定语从句也修饰our internal clocks
  If, however, you move the whole body to a time zone which is four hours different, the two clocks will be out of step, like two
alarm clocks which are normally set together, but which have been reset a few hours apart. ⑼ Whereas the two clocks would normally sound their alarms together, now they ring at different times. 10Similarly, the body can be set for evening while the sun is rising.
  9.“which is four hours different”是定语从句修饰zone “ which are normally set together” “ which have been reset a few hour apart” 是两个定语从句修饰 clocks

  In time the
physiological system will reset itself, but it does take time.⑾ One easily monitored rhythm is palm sweating. A man flown to a time zone different by 10 hours will take eight days to readjust his palm sweat. Blood pressure, which is also rhythmical, takes four days to readjust.12
  11.In time the physiological system will reset itself, but it does take time.
  it does take time 是强调谓语动词。经过一段时间后,生理系统将会自我调整过来,但这需要时间。

  12.which 引导非限制性定语从句, 修饰blood pressure.

  One reason for this
discrepancy is that different bodily events are controlled by different factors. 13 The hormone cortisol, which controls salt and water excretion, is made in the morning, wherever the body is. But the growth hormone is released during sleep, whenever in the day that sleep occurs. 14 Normally these two hormones are separated by seven or eight hours, but if the body arrives at a destination in the early morning local and goes to sleep as soon as possible, the two hormones will be released simultaneously.
  13.此句是一个表语从句,that 引导一个从句作表语。此句意思:出现这种差异的一个原因是人体的不同活动受到不同因素的支配。

  14.whenever 引导时间状语从句。Whenever in the day 意为不管在一天中的什么时候that sleep 是从句的主语,that 是指示代词修饰sleep
  What can we do about it? It is not
feasible to wait four days until the body is used to the new time zone. Fortunately there is a short cut. It relies on two things — the power of the stomach to regulate the timing of other events, and the pharmacological actions of coffee.
  The basic assumptions
  Coffee delays the body clock in the morning, and advances it at night. Coffee at mid-afternoon is neutral.
  15.该句中neutral 意为中性的,在这里是与上文的delay advance 相对,表示既不推迟,也不提前译为:下午三点左右喝咖啡对人体时钟不起作用。
  Protein in meals stimulates
wakefulness, while carbohydrates promote sleep.
  Putting food into an empty stomach helps synchronize the body clock.


XML 地图 | Sitemap 地图