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自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text B To Sleep, Perchance to Dream

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月09日

Text B To Sleep, Perchance to Dream

 

New Words
  1 perchance ad. [] 1.偶然,意外地;2.可能,或许

  2 miserable a. 悲惨的;可怜的
  3 far-fetched a. 1.牵强的;2.未必会的,靠不住的
  4 veteran n. 1.老兵,老手;2.[]退伍军人
   a. 老练的;经验丰富的
  5 administration n. 1.管理,经营;2.行政,行政机关
  6 sleepy a. 困倦的,嗜睡的
  7 link n. 环节,联系
  vt. 用环连接;联系
  8 elude vt. (巧妙地)逃避,躲避
  elusion
  elusive(形容词
)
  9 respectively ad. 各自的,分别地

  10 definitive a. 1.决定的,确定的;2.限定的,明确的
  infinitive(不明确的,不确定的。)
  11 evolve vt. 1.使发展,使形成,制定;

  2.引申出,推论
  vi. 1.进展;2.进化
  evolution(进化论)
  12 differ vi. 1.不同,相异(from);
  2.意见不同(from, with
  different(形容词)
  difference(名词)
  13 surprisingly ad. 惊人地;出乎意料地
  surprise(动词)
  14 namely ad. 即,也就是
  15 plus prep. 加,加上
  a. 1.正的;2.附加的
  minus(减)

  16 acronym n. 首字母缩略词
  17 eyeball n. 眼球
  18 correlation n. 相互关系,关联
  19 physiology n. 生理学
  20 unhappy n. 1.不快乐的,愁苦的;2.不幸的
  21 dreamer n. 1.做梦的人;2.空想家
  22 volunteer n. 志愿者;志愿兵
  a.志愿的
  vi.志愿
  23 identity n. 1.同一,一致;2.身份,本体
  ID card(身份证)
  24 primarily ad. 1.首先,起初;2.首要地,主要地
  25 merry a. 欢乐的,愉快的
  26 psychology n. 1.心理学;2.心理
  27 location n. 1.定位,测位;2.位置,场所
  locate(动词)
  28 reinforce vt. 1.增援,支援;2.加强,增加;
  3.进一步证实
  Phrases and Expressions
  1 influence on 的影响

  2 to break into 分成(部分)
  3 to check into 调查
   account for (部分),说明原因
  in turn 反过来,依次,轮流

  重点词汇:
  1.link : n./ vt. 环节,联系
  Id like to have a few links removed from this necklace. 我想从这条项链上去掉几环。
  There is a clear link between poverty and malnutrition. 贫穷与营养不良之间有明显的联系。
  2.respectively : ad. 各自地,分别地
  派生词:respect vt./n. 尊重,敬重;方面
  In the 200 metres, Lizzy and Sarah came first and third respectively. 200 米赛跑中,利兹和莎拉分别获第一和第三名。
  注意区别:respectable a. 值得尊重的;respectful a. 恭敬的,尊重的
  3. differ : vi .不同,相异
  派生词:different a. 不同的,相异的;difference n. 区别,差别,相异
  The twins look alike, but they differ in temperament.
  这对双胞胎看起来很像,但脾气不同。

  Robots differ from automatic machines in that after completion of one specific task, they can be reprogrammed by a computer to do another one.
  机器人与自动化机器不同之处在于机器人完成某一特定任务后,可由计算机重新编制程序去完成另一项任务。

  4. identity: n. 同一,一致;身份
  派生词:identify v. 识别,鉴别;identical a. 相同的,同一的
  The mans identity was being kept secret while he was helping the police with information about the murder. 这个人在向警察提供有关此谋杀案的信息时身份是保密的。
  5. influence on : 的影响
  Parents have great influence on their children. 父母对孩子有极大的影响。

  重点句子:
   Text B To Sleep, Perchance to Dream
  So you awoke this morning in a miserable mood. Well, maybe your special dream character didnt put in an appearance last night, or maybe there just werent enough people drifting through your dreams.

  1.Well, maybe your special dream character didnt put in an appearance last night, or maybe there just werent enough people drifting through your dreams. ( para.1)
  to put in an appearance (出于责任或礼貌,暂时地)到场,出席,露面

  drifting through your dreams. 现在分词短语作定语,修饰people
  全句译为:"是的,也许是你的特别的梦中人昨夜没在你梦中出现,或者是浮现在你梦中的人不够多。
"
  
If that sounds like far-fetched fantasy, consider these interesting findings that have emerged from eight years of sleep and dream research at the Veterans Administration hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio:
  While sleep affects how sleepy, friendly, aggressive, and unhappy we feel after awakening, feelings of happiness or unhappy we feel after awakening, feelings of happiness or unhappiness depend most strongly on our dreams.

  2.While sleep affects how sleepy, friendly, aggressive, and unhappy we feel after awakening, feelings of happiness or unhappiness depend most strongly on our dreams. (para.3)
  While 意为"尽管,虽然
"
  how sleepy, friendly, aggressive , and unhappy we feel after awakening 为宾语从句,

  depend … on 依赖,依靠
  全句译为:"虽然睡眠影响大家醒来之后如何困倦、和善、暴躁还是不快,大家的愉快与否的感觉很大程度上却取决于大家所做的梦的内容。
"
  
Each of us has a special dream character, a type of person whose appearance in our dreams makes us feel happier when we awake.
  What we dream at night isnt as important to how we feel in the morning as the number of people who appear in our dreams.
The more people, the better we feel.
  
3.What we dream at night isnt as important to how we feel in the morning as the number of people who appear in our dreams. (para.5)
   What we dream at night 主语从句 as important…as 一样重要。

  全句译为:"对大家清晨醒来时感觉如何,大家在夜间梦见什么并不十分重要,重要的是有多少人出现在大家梦中。"
  Our sleep influences our mood. Our mood, in turn, affects our performance.
And throughout the day, our levels of mood and performance remain closely linked.
  influences 可以是名词也可以是动词,意思是影响

  译文:大家的睡眠影响大家的情绪,反过来大家的情绪又影响大家的行为。
  During the past two decades, research has greatly expanded our knowledge about sleep and dreams. Scientists have identified various stages of sleep, and they have found that humans can function well on very little sleep, but only if they dream. Yet the true function of sleep and dreaming continues to elude precise explanation.
  Function v. 运转

  only if :只有
  if only :引导虚拟条件句,要是就好了。
  译文:科学家已经确认了各种不同的睡眠阶段,并且已经发现人类肌体可以运行的很好,但是只是在做梦的情况下。
  In 1970 Milton Kramer and Thomas Roth, researchers at the VA Hospital and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, respectively, raised this question: Do our moods in the morning relate in any way to our sleep and dreams the previous night?
  
Human experience suggests that they do. Certainly we generally feel better after a good nights sleep. But Drs. Kramer and Roth sought a much more definitive answer. And that answer, though sill evolving is a positive yes.
  Kramer and Roth began by seeking to determine whether ones mood differs between night and morning, and whether this is related directly to sleep.
They found that there is a difference, and it is definitely related to sleep. Then they explored the various aspects of mood and their relationship to the various stages of sleep and dreaming.
  be related to 有关系

  译文:KramerRoth企图确定人们的情绪早晚是否不同,并且这是否直接与人们的睡眠有关。
  What does a good nights sleep mean to our mood? Generally we are happier, less aggressive, sleepier, and, a bit surprisingly, less friendly. Being sleepier is easily explained. It simply takes a little time to become fully alert after awakening.
  
But why should we feel less friendly? Here the researchers must speculate a little. They suggest the answer may be the lack of association with other humans during the period of sleep.
  Once the two doctors established scientifically what common sense and folk wisdom had long taught - namely, that there is link between sleep and how we feel -they set out to learn what parts of our mood are related to which specific parts of the sleep cycle.

  Common sense 是普通常识
  folk wisdom 民间智慧 folk a.民间的
  set out to do 着手做某事

  译文:一旦两位博士科学的确定了人们长期以来学习到的普通常识和民间智慧--即睡眠和大家的感觉之间有联系,他们就着手了解大家的情绪的哪些部分与睡眠周期的哪些具体部分有关。

  Normal sleep is broken into five distinct parts - Stages I through 4, plus REM, an acronym for rapid eye movement. Much remains unknown about each of the five sleep stages. Most dreaming occurs during REM sleep, a period when the eyeballs move rapidly beneath the closed lids. And whether they remember or not, all adults dream, usually four to six times a night.
  Three types of mood are strongly related to some specific stage of sleep. Our friendly, aggressive, and sleepy feelings all relate to Stage 2 sleep, which accounts for most of our total sleep hours.
Our friendly and sleepy feelings, but not our aggressive feelings, are affected as well by Stages 3 and 4, and by how long it takes us to fall asleep.
  account for 比例

  译文:大家的友善、好斗、倦意都与占大家绝大部分睡眠时间的睡眠的第二阶段有关。
  This means that if you get less sleep than normal -and people vary a great deal in how much sleep they normally require -you awake more friendly, more aggressive, and less sleepy.
  
At this point, the doctors found themselves puzzled. They knew from their earlier work that sleep determines if people feel happier. Yet when they studied the various sleep stages, they found no correlation between sleep physiology and the unhappy mood. Clearly sleep made a difference, but that difference didnt relate to how much time one spent in each of the various sleep stages.
  The two researchers decided the key to whether we feel happy or unhappy after sleep must lie in sleeps psychological component -our dreams.
So they began studying dream content -what dreamers dreamed and who appeared in their dreams -to see how this affected mood.
  "We feel happy or unhappy after sleep"这个句子是介词宾语从句的主语,是一个主语从句。

  译文:两个研究人员决定大家睡醒后是否高兴的关键在于大家睡觉时的心理组成成份--大家的梦。

  Instead of sleeping through the night, volunteers now were awakened four times while in REM sleep. They were asked about such things as what their dreams were about; the sex, age, identity, and number of the people in their dreams; and what each person in a dream was doing.
  
Interestingly, Kramer and Roth found that being awakened four times a night didnt make a difference in the volunteers morning mood patterns. But they did find that who appears in a dream has a far greater influence on mood than what occurs in the dream. "Who affects all the moods." Kramer says, "but primarily the unhappy mood."
  Each of us, it turns out, has a special dream character, and if this type of character appears in our dreams, we are happier when we awake. "For people in general, how unhappy you feel after sleep depends on who is in the dream." Kramer says. "Who it is that makes you happier is different for you than for me."
For some it may be an older woman, for example; for others, a young man.
  10.这表明:大家每个人都有一个特 殊的梦的特征或梦中情人。

  11.谁能使你更高兴,这因人而异
  Who appears in your dream isnt the only important thing. The more people who appear in you dreams the happier you are on awakening. Its a case of the more the merrier. "The bad thing in a dream is to be alone; you feel worse," Kramer explains. "You can relate this to wakening psychology, where being alone leads to more unhappiness. There is something about interacting with people that produces happiness."
  12.情况是:人越多就越高兴。

  A number of researchers have examined the relationship of mood and performance. The doctors also checked into this relationship, and they have found some interesting correlations.
   "We found that the more friendly, more aggressive, more clear-thinking, less sleepy, and surprisingly, the more unhappy you are, the better you perform.
That last one -the unhappy - I cant explain," Kramer says. Moreover, the level of a persons moods and the level of his or her performance rise and fall together throughout the day.
   (13) 大家发现越友好,就越有闯劲,越头脑清晰,越不困乏,并且令人吃惊的是:你心情越不愉快,你的行为表现就越好。

  Initially the two VA researchers worked only with men, because the dreams of men are far easier to study. Men and women dream differently. Indeed, sex is the biggest factor in accounting for differences in the people, activities, locations and feelings that occur in dreams.
Dr. Kramer says, "When you compare men and women, you get a greater difference in dream content than when you compare, say, 20-and 60-year-olds, or black and white."
  (14account for 说明的原因

  译文:确实,性别是说明出现在人们梦中的行为、地点和感觉的不同的最大因素。
  Last year the VA researchers began studying the relationship of sleep, dreams, and mood in women. This work is continuing, but the initial findings reinforce what they had found in men.
  
"Overall, the women are just like men," Kramer says.

  补充常识: 被动语态

  英 语中被动语态的应用远远于汉语,尤其是在科技、法律文件中更为广泛。使用被动语态可以不出现动作的实行者(通常为人),强调动作的承受者,体现了客观性。因此,凡是不必要、不知道或不愿意说出动作的实行者的时候,就用被动语态。
  被动语态的基本结构为: be + 及物动词的过去分词
  被动语态可以用于所有时态,要注意动词be要与主语的人称、数都一致。另外,还可以有含有情态动词的被动语态,其结构为:情态动词+be+ 过去分词
  例如:His room is being painted.
  
My wallet was stolen a week ago.
  
The book has been translated into many languages.
  
This work should be done as soon as possible.
  被动语态句子的译法:

  1.译成汉语的""字句
  At its best, daydreaming was considered a compensatory substitute for the real things in life.
  白日梦最好的理解是被认为对生活中真实事情的一种补偿性的替代。

  2.译成汉语的""字句,或者"""""使"""等等。
  The work should be finished as soon as possible. 应尽快把工作完成。
  3.译成汉语的""结构
  Resistance is measured in Ohms. 电阻是以欧姆度量的。
  4.译成汉语的无主语句
  A rare element was found last year. 去年发现了一种稀有元素。
  5.译成主动句
  Such data can be depended on. 这些数据可靠。
  The children are taken care of by their mum. 妈妈照料孩子们。
  6.常见被动句型
  不加主语的:
  It is hoped that … "希翼…"
  It is reported that … " 据报道
…"
  It is said that … "据说
…"
  It is supposed that …"据猜测
…"
  It must be admitted … " 必须承认
…"
  It must be pointed that …"必须指出
…"
  It is asserted that … "据声称
…"
  可加主语的:

  原文中的主语在译文中变成了宾语,另外加上"人们""有人""大家""他们""众人"等等泛指词作主语。
  It is believed that …"人们认为…"
  It is generally considered that …"人们普遍认为
…"
  It is well known that …" 众所周知
… "
   It was told that …"有人曾说
…"
   It has been found that …" 人们已经发现
…"

  Unit 12 练习

  一、词汇英译汉:
  1. symptom 2. intellectual 3. detail 4. initial
  
5. inventor 6. confront 7. sensitivity 8. reflection
  
9. creativity 10. character 11. trace 12. modest
  词组:

  13. investment 14. to substitute … for 15. be contrary to 16. to put off
  
17. be confronted with 18. to gaze at
  
19. be unaware of 20. to impress…on
  
21. be free from 22. be beneficial to
  二、句子英译汉:

  1. At its best, daydreaming was considered a compensatory substitute for the real things in life.(para.1)
  
2. There are always those who would substitute fantasy lives for the rewards of real activity.(para.2)
  
3. Most people suffer from a lack of daydreaming rather than an excess of it. (para. 2)
  
4. Not only are they less able to deal with the pressure of day-to-day existence, but also their self -control and self-direction become endangered. (para.2)
  
5. But its beneficial effects go beyond this. (para. 3)
  Go beyond 表示"超越 不仅仅是
…"
  
6. Historically, scientists and inventors are one group that seems to take full advantage of relaxed moments. (para.7)
  Take advantage of 利用

  7.Whenever confronted with a task which seemed too hard to be dealt with, he would stretch out on his laboratory sofa and let fantasies flood his mind. (para.7)
  
8.Picture yourself as winning and that will contribute remarkably to success.
  
9.The important thing to remember is to picture these desired objectives as if you had already attained them.
  三、汉译英

  1.最近的研究成果表明,白日做梦是日常生活的一部分。
  Recent research shows / indicates that daydreaming is part of daily life.
  2.白日做梦不仅有利于心态平衡,而且能提高人们的自控力。

  Daydreaming is not only beneficial to the mental balance, but also to enhance ones ability of self-control.
  
Daydreaming can not only help maintain emotional balance, but also improve ones self-control.
  3.历史上许多科学家与发明家曾充分利用白日梦。

  Historically, many scientists and inventors have taken full advantage of daydreaming.
  
Many scientists and inventors in history took full use of daydreaming.
  4.有的作曲家在作曲时几乎像进入了很深的白日梦状态。

  While composing, some composers seem to approach a state of deep daydreaming.
  
Some composers seemed to approach a state of deep daydreaming while they were composing.
  5.在梦境中不要将自己描绘成失败者而应该是成功者。

  
Picture yourself as a winner rather than loser in your daydream.
  
Picture yourself in your daydream as winning rather than defeated.
  历年考题:

  1.According to Dr. Kramer, ______ people who appear in your dreams, ______ you are on awakening. 99.10
  A. as many … as happy
  
B. the more… the more happy
  
C. the more… the happier
  
D. the most … the happiest
  答案:C。考点:本题主要考查the + 比较级, the + 比较级,结构是"… ,
…"
  
2.Hold a picture of yourself long and steadily enough _____ your minds eye, and you will be drawn toward it . (99.10)
  
A.at B.in C.before D.in front of
  答案:B。考点:本题主要考查词组in ones minds eye 意思是"在脑海中,在心目中"

  3.In the past two decades, research ______(expand) our knowledge about sleep and dreams. (00.4)
  答案:has expanded。本题主要考查现在完成时。"in the past two decades"经常是表示现在完成时的时间状语。

  4.It has been proved that their best ideas seem _____(occur) when they were relaxing. (01.4)
  答案:to have occurred 考点:本题主要考查seem 后面要加动词不定式完成时作宾语。

  5.汉译英:科学家正在研究为什么白日梦会有益于人们的健康。(01.4)
  答案:
Scientists are studying why daydreaming is beneficial to peoples health.
  6.A life ____(live) without fantasy and daydreaming is a really poor life indeed. 02.4

  答案:lived。考点:lived 是过去分词作定语修饰life 词组"live a …life "表示过着样的生活。

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