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自考《英语(二)》课程讲义--Text B The Seeds of Wrath

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年06月10日

Text B The Seeds of Wrath

 

New Words
  1 wrath n. 愤怒,愤慨

  2 apartheid n. 种族隔离,种族隔离法
  3 repressive a. 镇压的;抑制的
  4 divisive a. 造成不和的,制造分裂的
  5 queue   n. 1.辫子;2.列队
        vi. 排队(for
  6 restriction n. 限制;约束
  7 subversive a. 颠覆性的;起破坏作用的
  8 sportsman([] sportsmen) n. 爱好运动的人;运动员
  9 singer n. 歌唱家,歌手
  10 actor n. 男演员 actress 女演员
  11 illegal a. 非法的;违规的
  12 chess n. 国际象棋
  13 barrier n. 障碍;障碍物
  14 poet n. 诗人 poem
  15 incapable a. 无能力的;不能的(of
  16 truthfully ad. 说真话的,如实地
  17 blindness n. 1.无视,视而不见;2.盲目性
  18 ban vt. 禁止,取缔
      n. 禁止;禁令
  19 flee vi./vt. 逃离,逃避
  20 pledge  v. 发誓;保证
        n. 1.誓言,誓约;2.保证物,抵押品
  21 suicide vt./vi./n. 自杀 commit suicide 自杀
  22 indication n. 1.指示,表示;2.象征,迹象
  23 legislate  vi. 立法
          vt. 通过立法
  24 inflict vt. 使遭受(损伤,苦痛等),使承受(on, upon
  25 rejection n. 1.拒绝,抵制;2.驳回
  26 separation n. 1.分开,分类;2.分隔
  27 cease vt./vi./n. 停止,结束
  28 eruption n. 1.(火山)喷发;
          2.(战争,感情等)爆发,迸发
  29 pervasive a. 弥漫的,渗透的;遍布的
  30 extent n. 1.广度,范围;2.程度
  31 sterility n. 1.不生育,(植物)不结果,(土地)贫瘠
           2.消毒,无菌
         sterile adj.
  
Phrases and Expressions
  1 to deny sth.to sb. 否认

  2 be subversive of 破坏

  3 be incapable of 不会,不能
  4 to commit suicide 自杀

  5 to cut off 1.切去,割掉;2.切断,使孤立
   to set aside/to put aside 搁置一旁,留出
  Text B 重点词汇:
  1.illegal :a. 非法的;违规的
  派生词:legal a. 合法的
  e.g. The parents launched a campaign to stop the illegal sale of cigarettes to children under 16.
  父母们发起了一项阻止非法向16岁以下儿童售烟的运动。

  2.ban v. 禁止,取缔;禁令
  e.g. Smoking is banned in this restaurant. 这个餐厅禁止吸烟。
  She was banned from driving for two years. 他被禁止开车两年。
  There should be a ban on talking and eating loudly in cinemas. 影片院里应该禁止大声说话和吃东西。
  3.flee : v. 逃离;逃避
  e.g. Everyone fled (from) the building when the fire alarm sounded. 当火警响起时每个人都向搂外逃去。
  In order to escape capture, he fled to the country. 为了躲避抓捕,他逃到了乡下。
  4.cease : v./n. 停止,结束
  近义词:stop
  e.g. We must cease dumping waste in the sea. 大家必须停止向海洋倾倒垃圾。

  5.extent: n. 广度,范围;程度
  e.g. We dont yet know the extent of his injuries. 大家还不知道他受伤的程度。
  People are affected to different extents by what they see on television.
  人们不同程度地受到电视节目的影响。

  词组:phrases
  1.to deny sth. to sb. : 否认

  e.g. They denied the right of making speech to him. 他们剥夺了他的发言权。

  2.be incapable of 不会,不能 be capable of=to be able to
  e.g. She is incapable of such a dreadful thing. 她不会干这种可怕的事。

  3.to cut off : 切去,割掉;切断
  e.g. If this bill is not paid within five days, your gas supply will be cut off. 如果你五天内还不支付的话,你的煤气供应将被停止。
  Living out in the country, she felt very cut off. 住在郊外农村里,她有种与世隔绝的感觉。

  4.to set aside ( to put aside ) 搁置一旁,留出
  e.g. Try and set aside half an hour every day to do some reading. 设法每天留出半小时阅读。
  
             The seeds of Wrath
  The world knows a great deal about apartheid. It knows it as a repressive political system which denies political representation to 14,000,000 South Africans because they are not white; it knows it as a divisive social system which keeps people apart, dividing them on colour lines and punishing those who try to cross these lines. But the effects of apartheid in terms of social behaviour and on cultural development are less well known.

  1.It knows it as a repressive political system which denies political representation to 14,000,000 South Africans because they are not white; it knows it as a divisive social system which keeps people apart, dividing them on color lines and punishing those who try to cross these lines. (para.1)
  此句是用分号隔开的两个并列句,第一个it是主语,指代the world, 第二个it是宾语,指代Apartheid, 两句中都有which 引导的定语从句修饰
system.
  
2.But the effects of apartheid in terms of social behavior and on cultural development are less well known. (para.1)
  in terms of 方面

  To understand the effects of apartheid it is necessary to think of the daily lives of the people and the ways in which their lives are regulated by apartheid.
  It means standing for hours in a bus-queue, because there are too few buses specially set aside for black people; it means having to pass theatres and swimming pool with no thought of ever entering them, because they are set aside for with people; and because the restrictions extend to the thoughts people think, and because the laws apply to both black and white, it means that all people in South Africa are denied the right to read certain books because the government believes them to be subversive of its apartheid society.

  3.It means standing for hours in a bus-queue, because there are too few buses specially set aside for black people. (para.3)
  set aside (为某特定目的)留出,分给,存下

  4.that all people in South Africa are denied the right to read certain books because the government believes them to be subversive of its apartheid society. (para.3)
  "… 无权阅读某些书
"
  Apartheid means that sportsmen like Basil DOliviera, Steve Makone, and Precious Mackenzie could never represent their own country because they were not white; that singers and actors like Miriam Makeba and Lionel Ngamane would be restricted because of their colour to appearing in certain places and before certain audiences
-a coloured cast could perform Verdis "La Traviata" but no nonwhites could attend a performance before the State president.
  
5.that singers and actors like Miriam Makeba and Lionel Ngamane would be restricted because of their colour to appearing in certain places and before certain audiences… (para. 4)
  because of their colour 插在 be restricted to 之间,be restricted to 意思是:"被局限在
"
  appearing 是动名词作介词 to 的宾语

  The list of restrictions is endless - these are only a few small examples. But what they add up to is a division which breeds hostility. At sports events, if white and black are present ,they support opposing sides and the result is friction -so much so that in many grounds only whites are allowed.
  
It is illegal for white and black to play chess together. And whites who tried to play football in a team with black members were prosecuted.
  
6.But what they add up to is a division which breeds hostility. (para.5)
  add up to 似乎是,(加起来)等于是

  全句大意:"但这些例子加起来却意味着酿成敌意的隔离。"
  
7.… so much so that in many grounds only whites are allowed. (para. 5 )
  so much so that 到这样的程度以至于

  And in a society where these ugly barriers exist, it is better to pretend that they are incapable of producing any work which truthfully reflects their society; and so deep has this kind of blindness entered that no work of any real worth has been produced in South Africa for many years.

  8.and so deep has this kind of blindness entered that no work of any real worth has been produced in South Africa for many years.para. 7
  这是一个"so + 副词"开头的倒装句,谓语发生部分倒装。
  Perhaps one might expect the writers among the blacks, in a situation full of tension and pain, to produce works which live. But for them apartheid presents another problem; to be frank is to be banned. And so writers like Alex la Guma were silenced by banning orders, or others, like Alfred Hutchinson and Bloke Modisane fled the country. For Nat Nakasa the pledge he was required to sign -to leave his country and never return proved too much; he committed suicide in New York.
  9.And so writers like Alex la Guma were silenced by banning orders
…(para.8)
  silence 是动词,使沉默,使安静

  Even white writers - Andre Brink,for instance - who have dared to criticise ,or appear to criticise, the apartheid society have suffered. Their works have been banned, or they have been savagely attacked by the official spokesmen of apartheid.
  The failure of writers to write,or of people to understand each other - all these are indications of the deeper evil; the failure of communication. But what is little understood by the outside world is that this is a failure legislated for.
It is a failure which has been carefully designed.
  
10.But what is little understood by the outside world is that this is a failure legislated for.(para. 10 )
  what is little understood by the outside world 是主语从句,

  在表语从句中 legislated for 是定语修饰 failure
  本句译为:"但是外部世界所不甚了解的是这种不能交流是有法律依据的
"
  It is the intention of those who have constructed the apartheid society, and who intend that it should last forever, that those who make up the society should be prevented from communicating with each other. Black and white must be cut off from each other, must be unable to communicate. It is on this division that apartheid rests.
This is the true meaning of apartheid. And it is this inflicts the true terrible wound on South African society.
  
11.It is the intention of those who have constructed the apartheid society, and who intend that it should last forever, that those who make up the society should be prevented from communicating with each other. ( para. 11)
  It 是形式主语,实际主语是
that those who make up the society should be prevented from communicating with each other.
  句中有三个 who 引导定语从句修饰
those
  全句大意为"这是那些建立种族隔离社会的人,并且希翼这种社会永远维持下去的人的意图,他们企图禁止构成这个社会的人相互交流。
"
  
12.Black and white must be cut off from each other, must be unable to communicate. (para.11)
  be cut off 被隔绝

  13.It is on this division that apartheid rests. (para.11)
  to rest on /upon 意思是"建立在之上,依靠
"
  本句是强调句,被强调部分是介词短语。译为:"种族隔离正是建立在这种分隔之上。
"
  But the real damage is in daily human relations. I have seen white children standing in one of the mixed buses rather than sit beside anyone who was not white and this seems to me so complete a rejection of another human person that it goes much further than the division and separation backed by law. From this kind of rejection comes a complete lack of any feeling of common humanity;
the suffering of a human being ceases to be real because he has ceased to be a real human being.
  
14.…this seems to me so complete a rejection of another human person that it goes much further than the division and separation backed by law.( para. 12)
  本句是一个带有结果状语从句的主从复合句,状语从句中又包含一个比较级结构,

much further than … ,
代词 it 指的是 rejection "排斥"
  backed by law 是过去分词短语作定语

  全句大意为:" 这在我看来是对另一个人的彻底排斥,这种排斥如此彻底,以至于超出了由法律支撑的隔绝和分离。"
  
15.From this kind of rejection comes a complete lack of any feeling of common humanity.(para.12)
  这是一个全部倒装句,谓语动词comes提到主语之前,倒装原因是主语a complete lack of any feeling of common humanity 过长。同时也为了更好地承接前文,前边刚提到
rejection
  译为:"这种排斥导致普通人性感情的彻底丧失。
"
  This is the situation, which has been created in South Africa today. The tensions are real, the threat of a violent eruption constant. And this must not be thought of simply as the product of political factors of arguments. It is a simple truth that human relations between people have deteriorated so far that dialogue, understanding, friendship - all these are impossible.

   This is the effect of apartheid in terms of society - this is its all pervasive extent: it breeds,if it breeds anything, hostility: often the result is simply the bitter sterility which will bring about violence.
  
16.It is a simple truth that human relations between people have deteriorated so far that dialogue, understanding, friendship all these are impossible. ( para. 13 )
  本句 it 是形式主语, that 引导主语从句,其中有一个so… that 结构。

  全句大意为:"这是一个简单的事实:人们之间的关系恶化到了如此地步,以至于人们之间的对话、理解、友谊,所有这些都成了不可能的事。"

  补充语法常识:

  动名词的逻辑主语
  1.动名词前面可以加上物主代词或名词所有格,表示行为的主体,成为动名词的逻辑主语
  例如:
   Whats the use of my doing that?
  
I dislike Johns coming to see me so often.
  
This young man somehow slipped a watch into his pocket without the teachers knowing it.
  2.在非正式英语中,尤其是当动名词在句中作宾语时,也可以用人称代词的宾格或普通格的名词修饰动名词

  例如:
   Nothing can stop me trying again.
  
Do you mind John driving you home ?
  

  Unit 14 练习
  一、词汇英译汉:
  1.device   2.compassion 3.grab   4.belonging  5.threatening
  6.convince  7. foster   8. persuasion 9. avail 
10. suspect
  
11.profound 12.to convince sb. to do sth. 13.to comment on
  二、句子英译汉:

  1.It was a microcassette found in Kathleen Weinsteins shirt pocket that not only led police to her alleged killer but also revealed the New Jersey teacher to be a woman of extraordinary courage and compassion. (para.1)
  本句是个强调句,另外注意found 的用法

  2.It was there , police believe, that Weinstein was able to activate the recorder she kept in her bag. (para.2)
  本句是强调句。

  3.Weinsteins body, with hands and feet bound, was discovered by a hiker on March 17. (para.4)
  
4.But before she died she somehow slipped the microcassette into her pocket without her killer knowing it.
  
5.Her powers of persuasion were to no avail.
  
6.He will not comment on LaSanes side of the conversation
  三、汉译英:

  1.她的劝说以失败而告终。
  Her persuasions were to no avail. (end in a failure)
  2.大家每人都应为他人做点事,付出点东西。

  We all should do something for somebody, to give something back.
  
Each of us should do something for others, offer something to others.
  3.这个年轻人的故事值得大家深思。

  The story of the young man is worth thinking about.
  4.女教师超人的勇气与同情心鼓舞许多学生为他人做好事。

  The extraordinary courage and compassion of woman teacher encouraged many students to do good deeds for others...
  5.一位具有非凡勇气的女教师与要杀她的凶手辩论。

  The extraordinary courage woman teacher reasoned with her killer.
  

  历年考题:
  1.It was there, the police believe, ______ she was able to activate the recorder she kept in her bag.
  
A.until
  
B.which
  
C.that
  
D.when
  答案:C 考点:本题主要考查强调句。

  2.Her body, with hands and feet _____(bind), was discovered by a traveler early in the morning.
  答案:bound

  考点:本题主要考查with + 名词+ 过去分词 为独立结构做状语。
  3.He will not make a ________ on LaSanes side of the conversation.
  
A.statement
  
B.reference
  
C.comment
  
D.note
  答案:C

  考点:本题主要考查固定搭配 to comment on "评论"
  4.汉译英:这个小伙子偷偷把一块表塞进口袋,没让老师看到。

  
This young man somehow slipped a watch into his pocket without his teacher knowing it.
  5.汉译英:那位生物学家相信,某些物种正在受到灭绝的威胁。

  The biologist is convinced that some plants are threatened with extinction.

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