山西自考网 发布时间:2013年07月23日




1. Psychological research has focused on a number of basic principles that helps memory.

research 在本句中做名词,这个词也可以做动词用。请看下面的例句,注意research的词类和用法:

1) An excellent piece of research won him the international prize.


2) Research shows that the potential of mans brain is limitless.研究表明人脑的潜力是无限的。

3) Much research has been done on / into diseases of blood.在血液病方面人们做了很多的研究。

4) Scientists have been researching on / into the causes of brain damage.


5) They felt very much disappointed as they had been researching for three years but with no result.


focus on 是一个常用词组,意思是“集中”,在生词部分已作了较为详细的讲解,在此,请翻译几个句子:

1) 他今天准是累了,他无法把注意力集中在工作上。

(He must be very tired today, he just couldnt focus his attention to his work.)

2) 她觉得很不自在,因为所有的目光都注视着她。(She felt very uneasy as all eyes were focused on her.)

3) 这本书着重谈了中东的形势。This book focuses on the situation in the Middle East.

a number of 的意思是“许多”。请看下面的例句,注意a number of the number of 的区别:

1) A number of factories have been shut down because of pollution problems.


2) A number of students have handed in their application forms.许多学生都递交了申请表。

3) The number of students in our school increases every year.大家学校的学生人数每年都在增加。

4) The number of passengers who were injured in the accident is still unknown.


2. It is useful to know how these principles work.

it 在句中做形式主语,真正的主语to know how these principles work,此类结构大家在第一和第二单元已有了解。请看下面的句子:

1) It is necessary to learn how to use the computer.学会如何使用计算机很有必要。

2) It is important to find out why the forest fire broke out.找出森林大火的原因很重要。

3) It is difficult to know what he is thinking about.要想知道他在想什么很困难。

work 在本句中的意思是“起作用;产生影响”,请翻译下面的句子:

1) The doctor said that the medicine would work.医生说药会起作用的。

2) They didnt think his plan would work.他们认为他的计划行不通。

3) They didnt expect that the teachers encouragement would work such a change in him.


3. Meaningfulness affects memory at all levels.

affect 是动词,意思是“影响”。常常会有一些英语学习者把动词affect和名词effect混淆,请注意下面的句子:

1) The drought would surely affect the harvest.这场干旱肯定会影响到收成。

2) Excessive smoking affected his health, bad coughs often made it difficult to breathe.


3) Psychologists believe that colors have a definite effect on people.


4) We could all see the effects of the illness on him.大家都能看出那场病在的身上的影响。

5) 职务的变化使他的收入大受影响。(The change in position greatly affected his income.)

6) 他的话对听众没有任何影响作用。(What he said had little effect on the audience.)

4. Information that doesnt make any sense to you is difficult to remember.

that引导的定语从句修饰information; 主句是Information is difficult to remember.

不定式to remember 用在做表语用的形容词后面作状语。请看下面的句子:

1) Einstein was easy to get along with.爱因斯坦很容易相处。

2) To many foreigners, Chinese is hard to learn.对许多外国人来说汉语很难学。

3) The water in this river is not fit to drink.这条河里的水不适合饮用。

4) This question is very difficult to answer.这个问题很难回答。

make sense 的意思是“有意义;可理解”。请看下面的句子:

1) No matter how you read it, this sentence doesnt make any sense to me.


2) What the writer wanted to express in his book doesnt make any sense to the readers.


3) His explanation makes no sense to his students.学生们不理解他的说明。

5. Organization also makes a difference in our ability to remember.

动词不定式to remember在句中做定语,修饰名词ability。请看下面的句子:

1) You should have confidence in your ability to fulfill the task.你们应对自己完成认务的能力有信心。

2) He has kept the promise to come early in the morning.他遵守了一大早来的诺言。

3) They have the determination to overcome all the difficulties.他们有克服所有困难的决心。

4) We could see her anxiety to solve the problem.大家能看出她急于解决这个问题。

make a difference 的意思是“有关系;有影响;起作用”。请看下面的句子:

1) What he said would not make any difference in my decision-making.


2) Your participation in the work will make a great difference.你参与大家的工作,情况就不一样了。

3) Money wont make much difference to him.钱对他起不了多大作用。

4) I didnt like the appearance of the house, but the location and price made all the difference.


6. Material that is organized is better remembered than jumbled information.


1) This story is better written than that one.这个故事写得比那个好。

2) This room is better furnished than that one.这间屋子装饰得比那间好。

3) This team is better trained than that one.这个队训练得比那个队好。

4) This job is better paid than that one.这份工作的报酬比那份高。


1) There are many ways of obtaining information.获得信息的途径很多。

2) So far I havent got any information about the game.我至今还没有得到有关比赛的任何消息。

3) I am sure this piece of information will be of great value to them.


7. Chunking consists of grouping separate bits of information.

在第一单元的Text B中大家已经对consist of有所了解。这一词组的意思是“由…组成”,它与be made up ofbe composed of 的意思相近,但consist of 不用被动语态。请看例句:

1) The United States consists of 50 states.美国由50个州组成。

2) The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


3) Their team is made up of 6 team members.他们队由6名队员组成。

4) Our class is made up of 45 students.大家班由45名同学组成。

a bit在句中的意思是“一点,一些”,它可以用在形容词的前面, 但是不能用在名词的前面。在名词前面必须用a bit of。请看下面的例句:

1) I am a bit tired today.我今天有点累。

2) He said he was bit hungry.他说他有点饿。

3) Your article is a bit long for our paper. (你的文章对大家的报纸来说有点长了。)

4) He gave the bird a bit of water. 他给了鸟儿一点水。

5) I would appreciate it if you could give me a bit of good advice.


6) I only know a bit of Spanish. 我只懂一点点西班牙语。

8. Categorizing is another means of organization.


1) The quickest means of travel is by plane. 最快的旅行方式是乘飞机。

2) Bicycle is the most convenient means of transport. 自行车是最方便的交通工具。

3) Email is a modern means of communication. 电子邮件是一种现代通讯方式。

4) He means what he says. 他说话算数。

5) Forgetting the past means betrayal. 忘记过去就意味着背叛。

9. Many people will group them into similar categories and remember them as follows

group into在句中的意思是“把…分组;把…归类”。请看例句:

1) We can group the animals into several types. 大家可以把这些动物归成几类。

2) Group the words into similar categories and they will be more easily to remember.


as follows 的意思是“如下”,请看例句:

1) The full text reads as follows: 全文如下:

2) The results are as follows: 结果如下:

10. Association refers to taking the material we want to remember and relating it tosomething we remember accurately.

refer to这一词组的意思很多,大家在单词部分已做过讲解。该词组在本句中的意思是“涉及;指”。请看下面的句子:

1) In the second chapter I will refer to this point again.在第二章中,我还会提到这一点的。

2) The numbers in my article refer to the footnotes.我文章中的数目字指的是注脚。

3) The author referred to his grandfather several times in his story.


we want to remember we remember accurately都是省略了that的定语从句,前者修饰material,后者修饰something。请看例句:

1) The book you gave me is very interesting.你给我的那本书很有趣。

2) The news he told me disturbed all of us greatly.他告诉我的那个消息使大家大家深感不安。

3) The information you gathered is of great help to me.你收集的那些信息对我很有帮助。

句子中的it指的是the materialrelateto 在句子中的意思是“与…有关系”,请看例句:

1) His talk mainly related to environmental protection.他的讲话主要是关于环境保护的。

2) This regulation relates only to children under 12.这一规则仅适用于12岁以下儿童。

11. Research has shown striking improvements in many types of memory tasks when people are asked to visualize the items to be remembered.


1) They made a striking commercial success within 5 years.


2) Helens facial features bore a striking resemblance to her mothers.


3) I am not sure whether he can make it this time. I just feel he has a striking lack of confidence.


to be remembered不定式的被动形式做定语,修饰the items。请看例句:

1) There are a lot of things to be done.有很多事要做。

2) Are you going to the press conference to be held this weekend?


3) This was the first project to be designed Johns brother. 这是约翰的哥哥设计的第一个工程。

12. In one study, subjects in one group were asked to learn some words using imagery, while the second group used repetition to learn the words.


1) The subject of todays discussion is Population and Education.今天讨论的题目是“人口与教育”。

2) The teacher explained in details the subject of the story to the whole class.


3) How many subjects are you taking this semester?这学期你选几门课?

4) He became the subject for ridicule.他成了人们取笑的对象。

5) Rabbits and mice are often subjects for medical experiments.兔和鼠常被用作医学实验的对象。

6) He is a Chinese subject.他是中国国民。

7) This sentence doesnt have a subject.这个句子没有主语。


1) The country was once subjected to foreign rule.这个国家曾一度受外国统治。

2) Taipei was subjected to serious earthquakes last year.台北去年遭受了严重的地震灾害。

3) We are all subject to the laws of nature.大家都要受自然规律的支配。

4) The child is very subject to coughs.这孩子动不动就咳嗽。

5) All men are subject to death.人总有一死。

while 在句子中做连词用,意思是“而,然而”。while也是一个多义词,请注意下面例句中while 的意思:

1) Strike while the iron is hot.趁热打铁。

2) He listened to the radio while he was doing his homework.他一边听收音机,一边做作业。

3) He is talkative while his twin brother is of few words.他很健谈,而他的孪生兄弟则少言寡语。

4) While the old man is respected, he is not well liked.这个老人很受尊重,但不太受喜欢。

5) You will succeed sooner or later while you dont lose heart.只要你不失去信心,你迟早会成功。

using imagery分词做状语,表示方式,请看例句:

1) They stood there waiting for the bus.

2) She had to work standing up.

13. Thus forming an integrated image with all the information placed in a single mental picture can help us to preserve a memory.

划线部分是该句的主要成分,forming an integrated image动名词短语做主语,can help做谓语,us to preserve a memory做复合宾语。

斜体部分是一个“with + 名词 + 过去分词”的独立结构,做方式状语,修饰动名词短语forming an integrated image


1) Would you like Tom to go with you?你愿意汤姆和你一起去吗?

2) He wants you to see him in the afternoon.他想让你下午去见他。

3) Father encouraged him to study harder.父亲鼓励他更加努力学习。

4) I will get someone to help you.我去找个人来帮你。

with + 名词 + 过去分词”的独立结构在英语中也很常见,请看例句:

1) With the problem solved, the plan is going on smoothly.随着这个问题的解决,计划正顺利进行。

2) Standing there is a torture to her, with so many eyes fixed on her.




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