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名师串讲综合英语(二)(珍藏版)4

山西自考网 发布时间:2013年07月25日

13.祈使句的基本形式

祈使句的第二人称主语you通常省略,以动词原形开头,句尾用句号或感叹号。

Sit down.

Take your share of the water!

祈使句的否定形式是在动词前加don’t,但在正式文体中则用do not

Do not litter in the park!

Do not feed the animals!

也可在动词前加never

Never forget the past.

Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today.(谚语)

14.祈使句的委婉形式

1)在句首或句尾加please

Pass me  the salt,please.

Please don’t forget to come here at eight tomorrow.

(2)用附加疑问成分will you? / won’t you? / would you?等。

Come and have dinner with us,would you?

Don’t come late again,will you?

15.祈使句的强调形式

1)在动词前可加上助动词do

Do come in and have a cup of coffee.

Do tell me what’s bothering you.

(2)祈使句表示命令、建议或警告时,动词前加“you”

You shut up.(不客气的说法)

You go first.

16.祈使句的第三人称形式

祈使句的句首或句尾也可加人名和第三人称代词如everyoneeverybody,nobody,anybody等,但它们不是句子的主语,只是称呼,用以唤起注意,不影响动词的形式。

Tom move the table there,and John take the rubbish out.

Passengers for Flight 104 please wait at Gate Four.

17.Let’s型祈使句

如果祈使的对象包括说话者本人,就用Let’s 型祈使句:

Let’s have a meeting this evening.

Let’s go in and have a look.

Let’s 型祈使句的否定式为Let’s not...Don’t let’s...:

Don’t let’s argue any more.

Let’s not argue any more.

注意let me do sth.表示提出做某事

Let me carry your suitcase.

在极为正式的文体中,let表示愿望。

Let justice and peace live!

Let all good people be happy!

18.祈使句的被动结构

祈使句的被动结构多用于否定式。

Don’t be frightened by what he says.

Don’t be surprised at what you are going to see.Rhetorical Questions & Ellipsis

19.修辞性疑问句

是用疑问句的形式表达说话人态度、感情而无需回答的疑问句。

1)形式

一般疑问句的肯定形式(起否定陈述句的作用)

Do you think you have the right to talk to me like that?(你觉得你有权利跟我这样说话?意思是你无权这么做。)

Is that the reason for going there alone?(这就是你单独去那儿的理由吗?意思是这不能成为理由。)

一般疑问句的否定形式(起肯定陈述句的作用)

Don’t you want to know what it is?(难道你就不想知道这是什么东西吗?意思是你肯定想知道。)

Haven’t you had enough of her complaints?(你还没受够她的抱怨吗?意思是你已经受够了。)

特殊疑问句的肯定形式(相当于否定的陈述句)

Now that you’ve got a wellpaid job,what else do you want?(你还要什么?意思是你不应该再要求别的什么了。)

What difference does it make?(那有什么区别?意思是没有区别。)

特殊疑问句的否定形式(相当于肯定的陈述句)

Who doesn’t know?(谁不知道?意思是谁都知道了。)

Why don’t you quit? You can’t hold out!(你为什么不罢手?你不可能坚持到底的!)

2)用法

表示惊讶、感叹

Don’t you love your own parents?(你难道不爱自己的父母吗?)

Isn’t that a lovely park?(那公园真美!)

表示愤怒

How dare you speak to me like that?(你居然跟我这样说话,太不像话了!)

Why don’t you shut up?(你给我闭嘴!)

表示建议或委婉的批评、责备

Why don’t we have lunch in an eating place around here?

Can’t you come a bit early next time?

表示邀请

Won’t you sit down and have a cup of tea?

Why don’t you come in and have a look?

用修辞性疑问句表达以上态度和感情时语气比一般陈述句要强烈。

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